Growing numbers of university leaders worldwide are seeing community engagement as a central priority, says Professor Robert M Hollister, executive director of the Talloires Network – a global coalition of universities committed to moving beyond the ivory tower. Rather than distracting from engagement, internationalisation is “dramatically reinforcing and accelerating that trend, through people learning from and influencing one another’s work”.
The network’s 2014 conference will be held in Cape Town, South Africa, in December – for the first time in the developing world.
With an anticipated 350 delegates from Talloires Network member institutions – 322 universities from 72 countries – learning will be enriched by perspectives from the global South and from a larger and more international group of university leaders as the Talloires Network continues to grow.
Logic would suggest that as higher education becomes increasingly international, the pressure would be on universities to look outwards and globally rather than locally and nationally.
But today’s leaders of engaged universities see internationalisation as an opportunity, says Hollister, who is also a professor in the department of urban and environmental policy and planning at Tufts University in the United States, home to the Talloires Network secretariat.
“We don’t see or experience the trends towards globalisation as competing with or in any way undercutting community engagement work.
“The current generation of university heads includes many for whom community engagement is a major focus of their dynamic leadership,” notes Hollister.
“To cite just a few examples – Cheryl de la Rey, University of Pretoria; Lisa Anderson, American University in Cairo; José Sanz, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid; Timothy Tong, Hong Kong Polytechnic University; Muhammed Asghar, National University of Sciences and Technology in Pakistan; and Michael Crow, Arizona State University in the US.”
Lessons from the South
University of Pretoria Vice-chancellor Cheryl de la Rey (pictured), who is a Talloires Network steering committee member, describes the location of the 2014 conference in Africa as a “milestone”.
Unlike in the global North, where the focus has largely been before, “societies like ours are grappling with big disparities between a small group of wealthy people and a large group of people who are struggling to live on a daily basis.
“So when we talk about the global South, we are going to essentially for the first time look at different ways of seeing the role of universities in our varied socio-political environments,” De la Rey told University World News.
“We think we have profound lessons to offer, because we see community engagement as an integral part of the core business of university work, not as a kind of add-on or extension into the community.” At Pretoria, engagement is a core part of the formal curriculum: by the time students graduate, they have to have been involved in a community project.
“We’re really talking about the social responsibility of universities and how proactive they are in addressing some of the challenges of our social and political environment.”
Reality vs perception
Despite the important engagement work universities are doing, and its powerful impacts on communities and students, it is constantly apparent in all countries that there is lack of understanding among decision-makers and the public of how “strong, energetic and rapidly expanding the engaged university model is.
“There’s a kind of communications gap or lag,” Hollister told University World News.
The network provides a platform for universities to speak as a collective, international voice to decision-makers who determine the future and resources of higher education, and to ramp up public awareness and support for university civic engagement.
So while the pioneers of university engagement operate within institutions and groups in different localities, the Talloires Network convenes regional and global conferences to amplify their collective experience and communication power.
It is very much operating within the broad internationalisation dynamic. Indeed, with a mission to deepen and sharpen the community work of its members, the Talloires Network is itself an example of how internationalisation can work to support local engagement. Further, almost all members of the network are involved in various forms of collaboration with other institutions – often in other countries.
Beyond the ivory tower
A couple of decades ago there was a noticeable uptick in community engagement, in terms of volume and types of activity ranging from student volunteering and community service that integrates community work into academic learning, to applied research and more direct involvement of academics in public policy-making.
“Over time there has been a real shift beyond the ivory tower. Universities are more intentionally and more substantially investing in innovating in their community engagement activities, and are using different vocabularies for talking about that work,” says Hollister.
“What’s exciting for us, what animates the work of the Talloires Network, is that this truly is becoming a universal movement – the number of universities that are embracing community engagement not as an interesting sideline but as a core activity, as a central dimension of their teaching and research; we see a huge increase in that work.”
The Talloires Network grew out of a first gathering of vice-chancellors, rectors and presidents in 2005. Tufts University has a conference centre in the foothills of the Alps in the town of Talloires, and invited a diverse group of leaders – 29 from 23 countries – to join a discussion about university civic engagement and social responsibility.
“It was the first time a substantial group of heads of universities had done so. We put together a geographically diverse group. Beforehand we worried a lot about whether they would just talk past each other since they came from such dramatically different places – Argentina, Sudan, South Africa, the United States, Australia,” Hollister recalls.
“But it was immediately apparent that in spite of differences of setting they had a huge extent of common vision and strategy. After forging a collective Talloires Declaration on the civic responsibilities of higher education, they said, ‘Let’s keep going, we want to continue the conversation and find ways of supporting each other’s work’.”
Growth of civic engagement and social responsibility is also increasingly reflected in the way universities market themselves, Matias Ramos, communications coordinator for the Talloires Network secretariat, told University World News.
Previously, many institutions highlighted opportunities for students to have a great experience on campus, with fellow students and professors. Now, they try to distinguish themselves from competitors by highlighting connections to their neighbourhoods, the cities that surround them, and how students have opportunities to participate.
“I think universities are trying to market themselves as being more inclusive, whereas in the past they might have been more exclusive. Civic engagement, community service, the real world experience is also valued both by students and prospective employers.”
Still, universities operate in an environment defined by a set of cross-pressures. The question arises, what constitutes community engagement work?
“For any institution it tends to be intensely local. But as is the case with some other topics and challenges in higher education, we’re in a period when global learning and exchange and cooperation around local community engagement work is a topic of very high attention.
“We’re astonished regularly by how eager our members are and how much initiative they take to connect with colleagues in very different parts of the world,” says Hollister.
A great cross-pressure universities are wrestling with is competing demands and expectations – particularly in the area of research. This includes the negative impacts, for instance, of research-oriented global ranking systems.
“We hear regularly that the quest for global recognition and reputation, defined with an emphasis on traditional research productivity and reputation measures, is a serious tension and distracts attention and resources and time away from community engagement activities.”
Another pressure has to do with student expectations and demands. The current generation of undergraduate students seeks an education that is both academically stimulating and practical enough to get them jobs and opportunities to make a difference to their lives.
Massification is another force, with universities in parts of the world under excruciating pressure to grow very rapidly. It is very difficult to do anything other than scramble to build more physical facilities, to staff institutions, to recruit and serve students – that is a major pressure and reality.
A further pressure is financial, particularly in the developing world where higher education has been under-financed, exacerbating strong political pressures to expand access.
Not all pressures work against community engagement. Powerful groups outside the academy – governments, businesses, NGOs and others – are with growing vigour demanding that universities make more direct contributions to tackling problems in communities.
“They are quite accurately seeing that in many areas there are vast untapped resources in higher education institutions for making a serious dent in those pressing society challenges,” says Hollister.
“For those of us who see the engaged university replacing the ivory tower, the exciting challenge is to figure out how to realistically navigate those cross-pressures and to respond to the mix of driving forces – those that facilitate community work and those that cut against it.”
The 2014 conference
The 2014 conference will be held from 2-4 December at the Spier Conference Centre near Stellenbosch, a university town set in the winelands outside Cape Town in South Africa.
It is being co-sponsored by the South African Higher Education Community Engagement Forum and co-hosted by the Cape Higher Education Consortium comprising the four Western Cape universities – Cape Peninsula, Cape Town, Stellenbosch and the Western Cape.
University leaders will debate and decide the next stage of the global movement of civic engagement. They will share experiences and plans, seek ways to support each other, and decide on priorities for collective action.
The theme of the conference is “Live Engagement, Transform Lives”, and there are three overarching themes – perspectives from the global South, youth employment, and economic development – as well as themes transcending the sessions including technology, political dimensions and context, and public policy.
Perspectives from the global South is there not only because the conference is being held for the first time in the South but also because of a need for a more balanced global debate.
Rather than learning from the North, said Matias Ramos, there was a growing view among university leaders of the Talloires Network from the South that “a culture should be created that is more about shared learning, about participatory learning in this type of gathering”.
A substantial number of speakers, presenters and workshop leaders will bring perspectives from the South. Plenary sessions will focus on issues such as strategies to combat youth unemployment, the roles of universities in advancing development, student visions and perspectives and volunteer programmes. There will be breakout sessions on four tracks: youth leadership, rewards and incentives, impacts and measurement, and social inclusion.
Jerome Slamat, chair of the local organising committee and senior director for community interaction at Stellenbosch University, said the growth of Talloires and of engagement activities in higher education was reflected in the numbers – 350 participants expected in Cape Town against around 250 who attended the last global gathering in Madrid in 2011.
What will be very different to Madrid will be the context, Slamat told University World News. The conference will be infused with influences from Cape Town, South Africa and Africa, and delegates will have opportunities to visit sites where universities and community partners engage.
“We’re meeting at a stage where the global university community engagement movement is maturing and there’s much more reflection and publication on it. We will explore areas like evaluation, and measuring success and impact and so forth. In this sense it will be different from Madrid as well.”
The focus in Madrid was also on university leaders, but lessons learned there were the importance of the student voice, which will be stronger in Cape Town, and “the opportunity for regional networks also to meet on the side and to get to know each other".
“The exciting networks in Ireland, in Europe, in Latin America, in Asia and the Arabic countries – they will all be coming.”
Cheryl de la Rey worries about the need for universities to constantly seek external sources of funding for community engagement work, with formal government subsidies dependent on other factors such as student enrolments and-or graduates and-or research outputs.
“I think we have an opportunity to develop a more informed conceptual and theoretical understanding about the role of universities in social development. And that could assist us with the longstanding issue of how to fund community engagement in our universities,” she says. “We must look at ways in which we can really integrate community engagement into teaching and learning and research, as opposed to seeing it as a third mission.
“I hope that as a worldwide network we will develop some common perspectives, while also drawing public awareness to the important role of universities in social development at the local level.”
* University World News is the media partner to the 2014 Talloires Network Leaders Conference, as we were in Madrid in 2011. In the coming months our journalists will write a series of articles on trends and issues in civic engagement and social responsibility that will set the scene for and be debated at the Cape Town conference from 2-4 December. We will provide live reporting on the conference and will produce a Special Report afterwards, pulling together articles of interest and importance to the higher education sector globally.
Receive UWN's free weekly e-newsletters